KSM is a decentralized blockchain platform that utilizes a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm. Validators play a crucial role in the KSM network by participating in block production and maintaining the network’s security.
In return for their services, validators receive rewards in the form of KSM tokens. However, if validators act against the network’s interests, they may face slashing, resulting in a loss of their staked funds.
There are several scenarios in which slashing can occur in KSM staking:
- Double Signing: Validators are required to sign blocks and attestations correctly. If a validator signs two conflicting blocks at the same height, it is considered a double signing offense. This behavior is highly discouraged as it undermines the consensus mechanism. In such cases, a validator’s stake can be slashed.
- Downtime: Validators are expected to be online and active in the network. If a validator fails to produce blocks or participate in the consensus process for a prolonged period, it is considered downtime. This can lead to a slashing penalty, as it can disrupt the network’s operation and security.
- Unresponsiveness: Validators are also required to respond to network requests promptly. If a validator fails to respond to other validators’ requests for a certain period, it is considered unresponsiveness. This behavior can lead to slashing to discourage unresponsive behavior.
- Collusion: Validators are expected to act independently and not collude with other validators to manipulate the network. If validators are found to be colluding to gain an unfair advantage, they can face slashing. Collusion undermines the decentralization and fairness of the network.
- Non-finality: Validators are responsible for attesting to the finality of blocks. If a validator attests to two conflicting blocks in the same block height, it is considered a non-finality offense.