Air Conditioning: How it Works and How to Avoid Breakdowns

Air conditioning is a technology that has become increasingly popular over the years. It’s a great way to stay cool during hot summer months and warm during colder weather. Understanding how air conditioning works can help you appreciate the technology better and also help you avoid costly breakdowns. In this article, we will discuss the main components of an air conditioning system, how they work together, and how to prevent breakdowns.

The Main Assembly of the Air Conditioner An air conditioner consists of two main parts: the outdoor and indoor units. The outdoor unit is mounted on the wall from the side of the street, and the indoor unit is located inside the room. The two units work together as a closed system of refrigerant movement, which is the working substance of the air conditioner. The main components of the air conditioner are:

  1. Compressor: This compresses the refrigerant, which is heated during compression, and keeps it moving along the refrigeration circuit.
  2. Capacitor: This radiator is located in the outdoor unit. In it, gaseous freon, being cooled by blowing with street air, condenses to a liquid state.
  3. Throttling device: This reduces pressure by lowering the temperature of the refrigerant.
  4. Evaporator: This radiator is located in the indoor unit. It is opposite in principle to the condenser: in it, freon evaporates when the temperature rises.
  5. Fans: These provide heat exchange of the internal and external units of the air conditioner with the environment.
  6. Copper pipes: These allow the refrigerant to circulate.

Outdoor Unit Device

The outdoor unit of an air conditioner is on the wall from the street side. This allows for the removal of heat from the room and reduces the noise level in it. The outdoor unit consists of several basic parts, including:

  1. Fan: This is usually a single-speed fan in simple models, while expensive options involve several speeds or smooth adjustment.
  2. Capacitor: Home air conditioners use air-cooled condensers.
  3. Compressor: There is a classic rotary and two-rotor. The latter is distinguished by the almost complete absence of vibrations.
  4. Throttling device: In-home air conditioners, it looks like a capillary tube or an electronic expansion valve.
  5. Control board: This is only present in inverter air conditioners.

Indoor Unit Device

The indoor unit is part of the split system and is located in the room. It includes:

  1. Decorative front panel of the case: Behind it are air filters and an evaporator (heat exchanger).
  2. Coarse filter: This mesh catches large particles at the entrance to the indoor unit, such as wool, hair, and dust.
  3. Fine filters
  4. Fan: Unlike the fan of the outdoor unit, this has several speeds.
  5. Evaporator: It is a copper tube with aluminum fins.
  6. Horizontal blinds: These movable elements of the block can be controlled using the remote control. They direct the airflow in the right direction vertically.
  7. Vertical blinds: In almost all domestic split systems, they can only be adjusted manually. They direct the airflow horizontally.
  8. Control block: A control board is installed in a protected plastic box, to which the starting elements of motors and sensors are connected.
  9. Indicator panel: This is located on the front panel of the air conditioner and demonstrates the status of the equipment.
  10. Drainage bath: This is a tray into which condensate flows from the surface of the heat exchanger. Then, the condensate is discharged into the sewer or outside through the drain pipe.


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Muhammad Shoaib Qazi
Muhammad Shoaib Qazi
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